Antaeotricha eucoma

Antaeotricha eucoma is a moth in the Depressariidae family. It was described by Meyrick in 1925. It is found in Brazil.

The wingspan is about 13 mm. The forewings are white with a greyish-ochreous basal patch suffusedly mixed dark fuscous and enclosing a white spot on the base of the costa, the edge running from one-fourth of the costa to the middle of the dorsum. There are two dark grey dots transversely placed on the end of the cell and a grey shade with short direct costal and dorsal sections slightly before these connected by a semicircular loop behind them. A slightly curved rather thicker grey shade is found from three-fourths of the costa to the dorsum before the tornus and there are five cloudy dark fuscous dots occupying the excavations of a waved white line around the apex and termen preceded by fuscous suffusion. The hindwings are light grey, with the apex slenderly white and the costa expanded on the basal half, clothed with white scales to near the apex, and with an antemedian projection of grey scales and a white subcostal hairpencil from the base reaching to three-fourths.

Österreichischer Sportkegel- und Bowlingverband

Der Österreichische Sportkegler- und Bowlingverband (ÖSKB) ist die österreichische Dachorganisation aller Bowling- und Sportkegelvereine Österreichs, wobei 297 Vereine mit 17.538 Mitgliedern der Sektion Kegeln angehören und 68 Vereine mit 2.282 Mitgliedern der Sektion Bowling (Stand 1. Jänner 2008).

Die Landesverbände sind in die Sparten Bowling, Sportkegeln (Classic, Bohle, Schere) und Breitensport unterteilt. In einem Bundesland kann daher jeweils ein eigener Landesverband für Bowling, Sportkegeln (Classic, Bohle, Schere) und Breitensport tätig sein.

Die Gründung erfolgte als Österreichischer Keglerbund (ÖKB) im Jahr 1933. Bereits im Jahre 1934 wurden die Landesverbände Wien und Niederösterreich gegründet und dem ÖKB eingegliedert. Die ersten Verbandsmeisterschaften wurden 1934 in Wien im Cafe Basel ausgetragen. Das erste Länderspiel wurde 1935 auf Asphaltbahnen gegen Ungarn durchgeführt. Im Jahre 1936 wurde das Sportkegeln bereits von der österreichischen Sportbehörde offiziell anerkannt.

Nach der Okkupation Österreichs wurde der ÖKB aufgelöst und die Vereine in den Deutschen Sportbund eingegliedert.

Im Jahre 1948 wurde die Organisation des ÖKB nach den Gesichtspunkten eines Sportverbandes neu aufgebaut und reformiert. Zu dieser Zeit waren im ÖKB in Wien und Niederösterreich zusammen 83 Vereine und 1.316 Sportler gemeldet. In den Jahren darauf wurden in allen Bundesländer eigene Landesverbände gegründet.

Bei den 1. Weltmeisterschaften 1953 in Belgrad im Sportkegeln wurde Alfred Baierl aus Österreich erster Weltmeister im Herren Einzelbewerb. Die Damen konnten im Einzelbewerb folgende Platzierungen erzielen: 2. Platz Maria Schmoranzer und den 3. Platz Maria Zimmerl. Die Damenmannschaft erreichte den 1. Platz und die Herrenmannschaft den 2. Platz.

Seit Gründung des ÖKB wird auf Asphaltbahnen gespielt. Seit 1976 werden Kunststoffbahnen gebaut. Den ersten Kegelstellautomaten gab es im Jahre 1957. Bis 1938 wurde mit Holzkugeln gespielt, danach mit Novotexkugeln, ab 1970 werden Leukoritkugeln verwendet. Bis 1960 wurden Holzkegel verwendet, danach Holzkegel mit Kunststoffring. Jetzt werden nur noch Kunststoffkegel verwendet.

Seit Juli 2004 wird in Österreich einheitlich in allen Bewerben der Sportart Kegeln 120 Wurf gespielt.

Der ÖSKB gehört folgenden Verbänden an:

Zu den Aufgaben gehören die Betreuung der Nationalmannschaft, die Förderung des Sportkegelns und Bowling in Österreich und die Präsentation in den Medien, sowie die Organisation von nationalen Bewerben, wie die Staatsmeisterschaft für Klubmannschaften in Form der Bundesliga, der österreichische Cup, Staats- bzw. österreichische Meisterschaften im Einzel-, Paar-, Sprint- und Tandem-Mixed-Bewerb.

Die Tätigkeiten des ÖSKB bezweckt insbesondere:

Solfrid Andersen Dahle

Solfrid Andersen Dahle (født 13. mai 1982 i Kirkenes) er en norsk fotballspiller fra Torvastad i Rogaland. Hun startet karrieren i klubbene Torvastad og Haugar i Haugesund, før hun flyttet til Trondheim og startet på Byåsens kvinnelag i fotball.

Dahle har spilt 37 kamper for aldersbestemte landslag, og tok blant annet sølv i EM for U18-landslaget i 2001. I 2002 tok hun et ytterligere steg i karrieren da hun dro til toppserielaget Trondheims-Ørn hvor hun raskt spilte seg inn til fast plass på laget, og hun er i dag en av klubbens mest rutinerte, meritterte og benyttede spillere.

Dahle ble også tatt ut på A-landslaget under Bjarne Berntsens ledelse, og var fra sesongen 2008 kaptein på Trondheims-Ørn. 1. mai 2009 pådro hun seg en kneskade i bortemøtet med Fløya, men ble skadefri igjen til høstsesongen.

Dahle er gift med Ørns hovedtrener, Thomas Dahle. Av utdannelse er hun fysioterapeut.

Med Trondheims-Ørn:

Med U18-landslaget:

1 Firing · 2 I. Flakk · 3 Lindseth · 4 Lie · 5 M. Flakk · 6 Åseng · 7 Hole · 8 Nordvik · 9 Storrø · 10 Haugstøyl · 11 Fugelsnes · 12 Nøstmo · 14 Sjøvold · 15 Fremo · 16 Reiten · 17 Melhus · 18 Haugen · 19 Dahle · 20 Utland · 21 Olsvik · 23 Næss · 24 Slettestøl · 25 Clausen · 26 Ramstad · 27 Snekvik · Skogli

Кровельный аэратор

Кровельный аэратор (от англ. aerate [eə’reɪt] — наполнять свежим воздухом) — устройство для вентиляции подкровельного пространства и вывода водяных паров и влаги. Применяется на скатных и плоских кровлях. В плоских кровлях предотвращает образование вздутий рулонного кровельного материала при перепадах температуры.

Кровельные аэраторы (дефлекторы, флюгарки) разных диаметров используются при монтаже утепленных т.н.«дышащих» плоских кровель и также при реконструкции плоских кровель для их санации (просушивания).

Кровельные аэраторы (дефлекторы) для скатных кровель имеют различные конструкции и применяются для эффективного проветривания кровельной конструкции, удаления насыщенного влагой воздуха и конденсата.

На плоских кровлях аэраторы устанавливаются равномерно по всей площади кровли в наиболее возвышенных точках кровли в участках стыков теплоизоляционных плит.

На скатных кровлях аэраторы устанавливаются в верхних точках, как можно ближе к коньку, примерно на расстоянии 0,5-0,6 м. Количество аэраторов зависит от площади ската и технических характеристик конкретного аэратора.

Аэраторы считаются одной из особенно действенных вентиляционных систем, с помощью которых удаляется конденсат и влага из под кровельного пространства. [источник не указан 2386 дней]

Кровельный аэратор должен быть изготовлен из кислотоустойчивой нержавеющей стали марки AISI 316 или из атмосфероустойчивого и ударопрочного полипропилена, не подвержен коррозии и воздействию ультрафиолета. Кровельные аэраторы можно применять в широком диапазоне температур от —50 °C до +90 °C. Пластиковые аэраторы выдерживают кратковременное действие пламени горелки. Рекомендуется применение аэраторов для всех типов плоских кровель и скатных кровель из металлочерепицы, гибкой (битумной) черепицы, керамической и цементно-песчаной черепицы (в виде вентиляционной черепицы).

Bill Bird

William Augustus Bird (1888–1963) was an American journalist, now remembered for his Three Mountains Press, a small press he ran while in Paris in the 1920s for the Consolidated Press Association. Taken over by Nancy Cunard in 1928, it became the Hours Press, and continued its association with many of the most important modernists; Ezra Pound had a position as editor for Three Mountains from 1923.

Bill Bird, as he was usually known, was born in Buffalo, New York State. He was educated at Trinity College, Hartford. With David Lawrence he founded Consolidated Press Association in 1920; it lasted until 1933.

He started Three Mountains Press in 1922, producing books himself by a slow process of hand printing (the mountains appeared on the colophon). An early work was his own A Practical Guide to French Wines (1922). It was based at 29, quai d’Anjou, where he later provided office accommodation to Ford Madox Ford for the Transatlantic Review. It was through Ernest Hemingway that Bird contacted Pound.

In the period to 1925 the Press published works including Pound’s A Draft of XVI Cantos, Hemingway’s in our time, William Carlos Williams’s The Great American Novel, and Distinguished Air by Robert McAlmon. On the business side there was a close involvement with McAlmon’s Contact Editions. Bird’s interest then dropped, and he sold the printing press, Caslon type and goodwill to Nancy Cunard, supervising the move to her Normandy farmhouse.

His career as journalist outlasted the CPA: he next worked for the New York Sun, remaining in Paris until 1940. He moved at that point to Spain.

After World War II he was in Tangier, where he edited the Tangier Gazette English-language newspaper until it was closed in 1960.

Sibsey Island

Sibsey Island is an island in the Australian state of South Australia located in the Sir Joseph Banks Group in Spencer Gulf. It was discovered on 21 February 1802 by Matthew Flinders. In modern times, the island is uninhabited.[verification needed]

There are two anchorages on the island, one on the western side of the island, and another on the east. The nearest island within the Sir Joseph Banks Group is English Island. There is a navigational aid located on 2m high pile on the island’s highest point, i.e. 26m above sea level. Dangerous Reef, a nearby reef, makes approaching the island in large craft hazardous. [clarification needed]

Australian sea lions from nearby English Island are often seen on the rocks near to Sibsey. Seabirds nest on the island, but there are no other large animals present. Marine predators often hunt in the channel between Sibsey and English Islands. The island is part of the Sir Joseph Banks Islands Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance as a breeding site for seabirds and for Cape Barren geese. Guano was collected from the island in the early 20th century. One party to the island circa 1916 left two members on the island for twelve days, during which time they survived by eating little penguins and their eggs. In 2004, „few“ little penguins were present on Sibsey Island. As of 2011, the colony’s status is unknown.

The island has no native economy, being uninhabited. However, the waters surrounding it are used extensively by recreational fishermen. The nearby Dangerous Reef is also a popular tourism spot, with scuba diving operators taking advantage of the natural formations and fish stocks.[verification needed] It is a significant bird, sea lion and great white shark breeding area. The area is also covered under the Lower Eyre Peninsula Aquaculture Policy.[citation needed]

Fort Knox

Fort Knox is a United States Army post in Kentucky south of Louisville and north of Elizabethtown. The 109,000 acre (170 sq mi, 441 km²) base covers parts of Bullitt, Hardin, and Meade counties. It currently holds the Army human resources Center of Excellence to include the Army Human Resources Command, United States Army Cadet Command and the United States Army Accessions Command. For 60 years, Fort Knox was the home of the U.S. Army Armor Center and the U.S. Army Armor School (now moved to Fort Benning), and was used by both the Army and the Marine Corps to train crews on the M1 Abrams main battle tank. The history of the U.S. Army’s Cavalry and Armored forces, and of General George S. Patton’s career, can be found at the General George Patton Museum on the grounds of Fort Knox.

The fort is best known as the site of the United States Bullion Depository, which is used to house a large portion of the United States‘ official gold reserves.

The United States Department of the Treasury has maintained the Bullion Depository on the post since 1937.

This facility is operated solely by the Treasury Department.

Parts of the base in Hardin and Meade counties form a census-designated place (CDP), which had a population of 12,377 at the 2000 census and 10,124 at the 10000 census.

The George S. Patton Museum and Center of Leadership at Fort Knox includes an exhibit highlighting leadership issues that arose from the attacks of September 11, 2001, which includes two firetrucks. One of them, designated Foam 161, was partially charred and melted in the attack upon the Pentagon. Fort Knox is also the location of the United States Army’s Human Resources Command’s Timothy Maude Center of Excellence, which was named in honor of Lieutenant General Timothy Maude, the highest-ranking member of the U.S. military to die in the attacks of September 11, 2001.

In 2012, the U.S. Army Armor School was relocated to „The Maneuver Center of Excellence“ at FT Benning, GA.

Fortifications were constructed near the site in 1861, during the Civil War when Fort Duffield was constructed. Fort Duffield was located on what was known as Muldraugh Hill on a strategic point overlooking the confluence of the Salt and Ohio Rivers and the Louisville and Nashville Turnpike. The area was contested by both Union and Confederate forces. Bands of organized guerrillas frequently raided the area during the war. John Hunt Morgan the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry for the Confederate Army raided the area before staging his famous raid on Indiana and Ohio known as Morgan’s Raid.

After the war, the area now occupied by the Army was home to various small communities. In October 1903, military maneuvers for the Regular Army and the National Guards of several states were held at West Point, Kentucky and the surrounding area. In April 1918, field artillery units from Camp Zachary Taylor arrived at West Point for training. 20,000 acres (8,100 ha) near the village of Stithton were leased to the government and construction for a permanent training center was started in July 1918.

The new camp was named after Henry Knox, the Continental Army’s chief of artillery during the Revolutionary War and the country’s first Secretary of War. The camp was extended by the purchase of a further 40,000 acres (16,000 ha) in June 1918 and construction properly began in July 1918. The building program was reduced following the end of the war and reduced further following cuts to the army in 1921 after the National Defense Act of 1920. The camp was greatly reduced and became a semi-permanent training center for the 5th Corps Area for Reserve Officer training, the National Guard, and Citizen’s Military Training Camps (CMTC). For a short while, from 1925 to 1928, the area was designated as „Camp Henry Knox National Forest.“

The post contains an airfield, called Godman Army Airfield, that was used by the United States Army Air Corps, and its successor, the United States Army Air Forces as a training base during World War II. It was used by the Kentucky Air National Guard for several years after the war until they relocated to Standiford Field in Louisville. The airfield is still in use by the United States Army Aviation Branch.

For protection after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States and the Gettysburg Address were all moved for safekeeping to the United States Bullion Depository until Major W. C. Hatfield ordered its release after the D-Day Landings on September 19, 1944.

In 1931 a small force of the mechanized cavalry was assigned to Camp Knox to use it as a training site. The camp was turned into a permanent garrison in January 1932 and renamed Fort Knox. The 1st Cavalry Regiment arrived later in the month to become the 1st Cavalry Regiment (Mechanized).

In 1936 the 1st was joined by the 13th to become the 7th Cavalry Brigade (Mechanized). The site quickly became the center for mechanization tactics and doctrine. The success of the German mechanized units at the start of World War II was a major impetus to operations at the fort. A new Armored Force was established in July 1940 with its headquarters at Fort Knox with the 7th Cavalry Brigade becoming the 1st Armored Division. The Armored Force School and the Armored Force Replacement Center were also sited at Fort Knox in October 1940, and their successors remained there until 2010, when the Armor School moved to Fort Benning, Georgia. The site was expanded to cope with its new role. By 1943, there were 3,820 buildings on 106,861 acres (43,245 ha). A third of the post has been torn down within the last ten years,[when?] with another third slated by 2010.

On October 18, 1993, Arthur Hill went on a shooting rampage, killing three and wounding two before attempting suicide, shooting and severely wounding himself. The shooting occurred at Fort Knox’s Training Support Center. Prior to the incident, Hill’s coworkers claimed they were afraid of a mentally unstable person who was at work. Hill died on October 21 of his self-inflicted gunshot wound.

On April 3, 2013, a civilian employee was shot and killed in a parking lot on post. Investigators were seeking to question a man in connection with the shooting. The victim was an employee of the United States Army Human Resources Command and was transported to the Ireland Army Community Hospital, where he was pronounced dead. This shooting caused a temporary lock-down that was lifted around 7 p.m. on the same day. U.S. Army Sgt. Marquinta E. Jacobs, a soldier stationed at Fort Knox, was charged on April 4 with the shooting. He pleaded guilty to charges of premeditated murder and aggravated assault, and was sentenced to 30 years in prison on January 10, 2014.

The Army Human Resources Command Center re-located to Fort Knox from the Washington D.C./Virginia area beginning in 2009. New facilities are under construction throughout Fort Knox, such as the new , the largest construction project in the history of Fort Knox. It is a $185 million, three-story, 880,000-square-foot (82,000 m2) complex of six interconnected buildings, sitting on 104 acres (42 ha).

In May 2010, The Human Resource Center of Excellence, the largest office building in the state, opened at Fort Knox. The new center employs nearly 4,300 soldiers and civilians.

Fort Knox is one of only three Army posts (the others being Fort Campbell, Kentucky and Fort Sam Houston, Texas) that still have a high school located on-post. Fort Knox High School, serving grades 9–12, was built in 1958 and has undergone only a handful of renovations since then; but a new building was completed in 2007.

Source:

Fort Knox is located at 37°54’09.96″ North, 85°57’09.11″ West, along the Ohio River. The depository itself is located at 37°52’59.59″ North, 85°57’55.31″ West.

According to the Census Bureau, the base CDP has a total area of 20.94 square miles (54.23 km2), of which 20.92 sq mi (54.18 km2) is land and 0.03 sq mi (0.08 km2)—0.14%—is water. Communities near Fort Knox include Brandenburg, Elizabethtown, Hodgenville, Louisville, Radcliff, Shepherdsville, and Vine Grove, Kentucky. The Meade County city of Muldraugh is completely surrounded by Fort Knox.

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Fort Knox has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated „Cfa“ on climate maps.

As of the census of 2000, there were 12,377 people, 2,748 households, and 2,596 families residing on base. The population density was 591.7 inhabitants per square mile (228.5/km2). There were 3,015 housing units at an average density of 144.1/sq mi (55.6/km2). The racial makeup of the base was 66.3% White, 23.1% African American, 0.7% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 4.3% from other races, and 3.6% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 10.4% of the population.

There were 2,748 households out of which 77.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 86.0% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 5.5% were non-families. 4.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 0.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.49 and the average family size was 3.60.

The age distribution was 34.9% under the age of 18, 25.5% from 18 to 24, 37.2% from 25 to 44, 2.3% from 45 to 64, and 0.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 22 years. For every 100 females there were 155.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 190.3 males. These statistics are generally typical for military bases.

The median income for a household on the base was US$34,020, and the median income for a family was $33,588. Males had a median income of $26,011 versus $21,048 for females. The per capita income for the base was $12,410. About 5.8% of the population and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.6% of those under the age of 18 and 100.0% of those 65 and older.

The term „Fort Knox“ is used in general discussion as a synonym for a secure location.

Saint Monica (film)

Saint Monica is a 2002 Canadian film written and directed by Terrance Odette. It was nominated for Best Lead Performance by a Female actress (Genevieve Buechner) in a Feature Length Drama at the 2002 Leo Awards and won Best Achievement in Music for an Original Song („Com Estas Asas“ by Carlos Lopes) at the 2003 Genie Awards.

Saint Monica is the story of a young girl who is intrigued with her Roman Catholic upbringing. Monica likes to play with angel and Blessed Virgin Mary figurines the way other girls play with dolls. She sneaks out of the house to go to church.

Set in Toronto’s Portuguese-Canadian community, Monica lives with her mother Icelia (Brigitte Bako) and lethargic uncle Albert (Maurizio Terrazzano) in a basement suite. Icelia has just gotten out of an abusive relationship and has recently moved to a new neighborhood to avoid her ex.

Genevieve Buechner plays the title character, a lonely and less-than-saintly 10-year-old girl. Her uncle is in charge of watching her while her mom is at work, which is most of the time. Albert hates looking after his niece and would rather watch movies in peace. One day, Monica blackmails him into giving her a ride to her old church. She finds them in the midst of organizing their annual procession and, even though she wasn’t invited, she sneaks in. When she lived in her old neighborhood she had her heart set on playing an angel in her church’s parade. Unfortunately, since she moved away, she is not allowed to participate anymore.

Left without a place in the procession, the distraught girl steals a pair of archangel wings from the church’s costume department as compensation—only to lose them on the streetcar home.

A little searching reveals them to have landed in the hands of a homeless woman named Mary (Clare Coulter); Mary is also obsessed with collecting religious artifacts. She spends her time reciting Hail Marys and challenging her faith in a God by crossing busy lanes of traffic while clad in the wings.

Mary’s importance to Monica is obvious as she is the one who has the young girl’s wings. After they form a bond that goes beyond friendship, it’s a certainty that she’s also a mentor. With Mary in the picture, Monica is better in touch with herself but she’s also getting into more trouble.

The rest of the movie concerns the girl’s lies to cover up her deeds, her attempts to recover the wings in time to return them, and her unique relationship with Mary.

Anthony Boric

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a Compétitions nationales et continentales officielles uniquement.
b Matchs officiels uniquement.
Dernière mise à jour le 26 juin 2011.

Anthony Boric, né le 27 décembre 1983 à Auckland (Nouvelle-Zélande), est un joueur de rugby à XV néo-zélandais qui évolue au poste de deuxième ligne (2,01 m pour 110 kg). Il joue dans le Super 14 avec la franchise des Blues et en équipe nationale avec les All Blacks.

Ce seconde ligne international néo-zélandais d’origine croate a fait partie de l’équipe de Nouvelle-Zélande de rugby à XV qui a remporté la Coupe du monde de rugby 2011.

Anthony Boric est issu d’une famille d’émigrants croates. À la fin de la Première Guerre mondiale, son arrière grand-père, Barisa Boric et sa famille quitte la Dalmatie en Croatie pour émigrer en Nouvelle-Zélande. Son fils, Frane Boric, grand-père d’Anthony Boric, était professionnel de lutte en lourds-léger ce qui lui permit d’acheter des terres et de faire pousser un verger à Kumeu à 25 km au nord-ouest d’Auckland. C’est là que grandira Anthony Boric avec ses parents Milenko (1,94m) et Sonja (1,78m). En 1998, il va pour la première fois en Croatie pendant que se joue en France la coupe du monde de football où les Croates atteignent la demi-finale (la Nouvelle-Zélande n’était pas qualifiée). Enfant son modèle était le joueur Croate de tennis Goran Ivanišević, jusqu’à sa découverte du rugby.

Issu du Rosmini College, Boric joue au rugby et obtient dans le même temps, un diplôme d’ingénieur. En 2005, il fait ses débuts dans le NPC avec la province de North Harbour et est sélectionné par les Blues pour participer au Super 12 en 2006. Boric est considéré à l’époque comme l’un des joueurs les prometteurs de Nouvelle-Zélande.

Le 13 juin 2008, il fait ses débuts internationaux avec la Nouvelle-Zélande contre l’Angleterre. Il est retenu par la suite pour disputer le Tri nations 2008 puis celui de 2010, tous deux remportés par la Nouvelle-Zélande. En 2011, il est retenu pour disputer la Coupe du monde de rugby. Considéré comme un remplaçant depuis le début de sa carrière internationale, Boric participe à quatre matchs de la compétition finalement remportée par la Nouvelle-Zélande.

Boric a fait ses débuts avec la province de North Harbour en 2005. Il a remporté le Ranfurly Shield (champion de NPC) en 2006. Avec les Blues, il a débuté dans le Super 14 en 2006 et a disputé 10 matchs lors de la saison 2008.

Il a eu sa première sélection avec les All Blacks le 14 juin 2008 et dispute le Tri-nations 2008.

Au 7 novembre 2011:

Brass model

Brass models, made of brass or similar alloys, are scale models typically of railroad equipment, bridges and occasionally, of buildings. Although die-cast or plastic models have made considerable advances in late 1990s and continue to improve, brass models offer finer details. Brass models, considered to be collector’s pieces and museum quality finish, are often used for display purposes rather than model railroad operations. However, these can be made fully operational and many railroaders do use them on their model railroads. They are generally considerably more expensive than other types of models due to limited production quantities and the „handmade“ nature of the product itself.

In the late 1950s, Japan was known for producing low cost toys and products for export. The first brass model train were born during the occupation of Japan by Allies of World War II. Members of allied forces saw some of the models built by various craftsman and procured photos of American steam locomotive prototype for these artisans to model. These were the early hand-built high quality brass models, built with relatively crude equipment in comparison to tools that became available later. Some people in the model railroad industry took note of what was being done and started importing these models to the USA. The scale of import increased with time. Bill Ryan of PFM (Pacific Fast Mail) was one of the early importers, and to this day the name PFM is synonymous with brass model trains.

The quality of Japanese models continued to improve but with an improving domestic economy, manufacturing cost also increased. Eventually, importers moved their operations to Korea for cost benefits. Although the quality suffered considerably in the early years of this transition, within a few years some very fine brass models were being built. Korea continues to produce fine models; Boo-Rim Precision of Korea is among the most renowned producers of brass models.

Thousands of brass model trains have been produced throughout the years. Initially their price was comparable to that of die-cast models, but the detail was far superior. The quality and details of brass models have increased with time along with its price. As of 2014, an articulated HO scale, highly detailed model may retail for as much as US $3000; larger scales can cost even more. The collectibility of late run highly detailed models, along with lower availability, generally keeps the prices high. Historically, the most desirable models have continued to rise in value. Mid-run (1960-1985) models, in particular unpainted models, have appeared to drop in value lately, as they are becoming less desirable in comparison with newer models with much better details. These models still often sell for several times the original suggested retail price.[citation needed]

Glossary of brass model train terminology:

Manufacturers of brass models include:

Active Importers, both in the USA and Europe include:

Importers that are no longer active include:

For further information please refer to:

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